Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Test is one of the most widely accepted clinical testing instruments, used for psychological testing by trained professionals. MMPI was developed in the late 30s by Starke Hathaway and J.C. McKinley, at the University of Minnesota that holds its copyrights. It is the most researched and preferred psychological tests in the world; MMPI is commonly used to study psychopathology and diagnosing personality traits of an individual. Admissions to Federal agencies such as Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defence and Federal Aviation Administration require going through MMPI tests.
A brief History
It would not be wrong considering MMPI as a gold standard in identifying personality attributes of an individual. After its inception in 1939, MMPI has undergone many transformations and standardizations. In 1989, MMPI was changed to MMPI-2 as a result of re-standardization of psychometric changes in the methods of assessment. Its latest revised version was released in the year 2003 (MMPI-2 RC) which included Restructured Clinical Scales, which later got transformed to MMPI-2 RF (Restructured Form) in 2008.
Scales of measurement
The different scales of MMPI test measure varied aspects of body and mind of adults and adolescents. While the Clinical scales measure Hypochondriasis to depression, hysteria and paranoia, Hypomania to schizophrenia and Social introversion to pschyasthenia, the six Validity Scales aid in detecting all types of responses of the clients. The third scale on MMPI is the Supplemental scales which has been developed to supplement these multidimensional scales in measuring the extent to which the individual admits or is prone to a particular habit or substance. The PSY-5 scales were designed to assess general variations in personality psychology. Along with that, MMPI witnesses a host of sub-scales created as a result of researches over the years such as Wiggins Content sub-scales, Harris-Lingoes sub-scales, etc. to name a few.
Clinicians and psychologists utilize MMPI reports to evaluate and provide adequate treatment to concerned individuals in seven different mental health status, namely- Outpatient mental health, Chronic pain, Inpatient mental health, College counseling, Correctional, Alcohol and drug treatment and General mental health. This written psychological assessment test with yes or no type questionnaire, consists of 567 test items to perform in around 60-90 minutes. MMPI-2 test is conducted under the administration of a trained professional and interpreted and scored by a psychiatrist or psychologist, one who has undergone proper training in MMPI implementation. Designed for different age groups from 18 and above, MMPI test is the mark of excellence in the field on mental health status. The results of the test should therefore be evaluated and interpreted by trained professionals only.
MMPI Test Cost Factor
The administrative materials for MMPI-A Audio CDs starts at $56.50, whereas MMPI-A User guide costs around $40.75. MMPI-A test booklets (softcover) costs $40.00, while MMPI-A test booklets (hardcover) costs $61.00. MMPI-A Manuals come at a price of $58.00 along with a manual supplement at $33.50. Spanish Manual Supplement can be purchased at $41.00. The starter MMPI kit which consist of manuals and interpretive system Guides for individuals, softcover test booklets, and answer sheets comes at $200.00. While MMPI answer sheets and reporting sheets come at various discounted rates depending upon the quantity of items. MMPI-A Pearson scoring services starter kit starts at $205.00. Hand scoring materials including the reporting sheets and forms come at $52.00 individually. MMPI-A hand scoring Answer sheets with Clinical and Validity scales, Supplementary scales and Content subscales are priced at $85.00 each.
The two main advantages of MMPI test include-MMPI is not based upon Clinical assumptions but on empirical research, which makes it perfect to interpret personality characteristics.It is not possible to provide fake information, views and responses to the MMPI test or deny any particular question.
Scoring and Reporting
The reports of MMPI test contain
- The understated narrative sections which help the professionals to have a better understanding and interpretation of the individual-Profile frequency, validity and stability
- Diagnostic and treatment considerations
- Interpersonal relations
- Symptomatic patterns
- Validity pattern graph
- Supplementary and Clinical Scales Graph
- Critical and omitted items
- Item responses
Utility of MMPI Test
MMPI test is used to evaluate the mental progress of individuals who have undergone rehabilitation or particular psychological treatment for some time. It helps the psychiatrists to have an in-depth study of the personality traits and psychological thinking of the clients or test subjects. Moreover, the test aids the clinicians to relate the particular mental conditions to particular illnesses, habitual behaviours, or other personality variables. The most crucial use of MMPI test is in forensics, as for example, compensation evaluations, criminal hearing etc. However, the use of MMPI is most controversial in the field of personnel evaluation.